Climate change and air protection
The quality of air in the Republic of Croatia is monitored on the state and local level through a network of measuring stations constituting the State Network for Continuous Monitoring of Air Quality, and the local networks for monitoring air quality in counties and towns, which also include special purpose measuring stations.
The State Network for Continuous Air Quality Monitoring:
In accordance with the Air Protection Act (OG 130/11, 47/14), the Croatian Meteorological and Hydrological Service manages the State Network and it is responsible for implementing the air quality measurement programme. The Institute for Medical Research and Occupational Health monitors air quality on the stations in the state network in the part related to the sampling and physical and chemical analyses of the suspended particles PM10 and PM2.5, while the Environmental Protection and Energy Efficiency Fund provides the financial resources for the implementation of the Programme for measuring pollution levels in the State Network for Continuous Air Quality Monitoring.
The State Network for Continuous Air Quality Monitoring and the measuring points for continuous air monitoring have been set out in the Regulation establishing the List of measuring points for monitoring the concentrations of particular pollutants in the air and the locations of measuring stations in the State Network for Continuous Monitoring of Air Quality (OG 22/14) and the Programme for measuring the level of pollution in the State Network for Continuous Monitoring of Air Quality (OG 103/14 and 117/14).
Air quality data from the State Network are publicly available and are published on the website of the Croatian Agency for the Environment and Nature.
In the field of air quality protection and improvement, the Environmental Protection and Energy Efficiency Fund also co-finances the programmes and projects whose main goal is permanent protection and preservation of air quality in the Republic of Croatia, especially in the areas where air quality is not in category 1, and fulfilling the goals arising from the existing legislative frameworks, such as adjustment and upgrading of the information system, modernisation and extension of the State Network for Continuous Air Quality Monitoring, education and information of citizens about air quality, air quality modelling.
SUBSTANCES DEPLETING THE OZONE LAYER AND FLUORINATED GREENHOUSE GASES
Phasing out and terminating the use of substances depleting the ozone layer (controlled and new substances), and reducing the emissions of fluorinated gases is laid down in the Regulation on substances depleting the ozone layer and fluorinated greenhouse gases (OG 92/12), adopted under the Air Protection Act, while the measures are implemented through the control of use of these substances, prohibition of use of the products containing these substances, collection and elimination of these substances, and other measures that cost-effectively contribute to the protection of the ozone layer.
Controlled substances include: chlorofluorocarbons (CFC), other completely halogenated chlorofluorocarbons, halons, carbon tetrachloride, 1.1.1.-trichloroethane, bromomethane (methyl bromide), hydrobromofluorocarbons(HBFC), hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFC), bromochloromethane (methylene bromochloride), and mixed controlled substances.
The new substances include: dibromodifluoromethane, 1-bromopropane, bromoethane, trifluoroiodomethane, and chloromethane.
Fluorinated greenhouse gases include: sulphur hexafluoride (SF6), hydrofluorocarbons (HFC), perfluorocarbons (PFC), and mixed fluorinated GHGs.
The products and equipment that contain controlled substances or depend on them, include cooling devices and AC units, products in the form of aerosols (apart from those that are applied in medical procedures), solvents, products, fire systems and fire extinguishers, and polymer materials.
The products and equipment containing fluorinated greenhouse gases or that depend on them include other products and equipment (disposable containers, windows, footwear, car tyres, one-component foams), non-confined direct evaporation systems, fire systems and fire extinguishers, and the new aerosols.
As party to the Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer, the Republic of Croatia is committed to implement international and national regulations covering the use of these substances.
In October 2013, the Environmental Protection and Energy Efficiency Fund concluded with the United Nations Industrial Development Organisation (UNIDO) the Agreement on joint co-operation and co-financing of the project Implementation of HCFC Phase-out Management Plan of the Republic of Croatia (HCFC R22-controlled substance) (hereinafter: the Project).
Under the Project, refrigerants were replaced, i.e. five units were retrofitted (two devices in the General Hospital dr. Josip Benčević, two devices in the Klovićevi Dvori Gallery, and one device in the Brijuni National Park. Also, the total of nine (9) cooling units were replaced by the following beneficiaries:
- - Croatian National Theatre Split (2 devices),
- - Clinical Hospital Split,
- - Clinical Hospital Sestre Milosrdnice,
- - Ministry of Interior of Croatia, Police Administration (2 units),
- - Clinical Hospital Osijek (3 units).
The funding spent on the Project amounts to HRK 6,222,220.78, with UNIDO’s share amounting to USD 300,000.
The Project resulted in:
- Retrofitting of four (4) cooling systems, i.e. switching from the refrigerant HCFC-22 (ODP=0,035) to HFC refrigerants (HFC R-422D and HFC R-407C), which do not deplete the ozone layer (ODP=0).
- Complete replacement of nine (9) HCFC-22 cooling systems with cooling units that use natural low GWP refrigerant, propane (GWP < 3), thus eliminating from the market 1.112 kg, i.e. 38 kg ODP eq and 1.979.360 GWP,
- Avoiding annual HCFC-22 emission of 769 kg, i.e. 26 kg ODP eq and 1.368.820 kg GWP eq,
- Due to repair works on the units, annual HCFC-22 emission of 684.410 kg GWP eq was avoided,
- For the purpose of higher energy efficiency and reducing energy consumption, the annual HCFC-22 emission of 211.223 kg GWP eq was avoided (calculated for a 1-year period),
- Impact on the global warming reduced by 2.264.453 kg GWP eq due to the use of AC units (calculated for a 1-year period), and
- The overall reduction of impact on the global warming of 4.243.813 kg GWP eq.
The Project ended in late March 2015.